All Our Families Publications


To learn more about our research results, please select a topic of interest below or view the comprehensive list of our journal articles sorted by year of publication.




Doktorchik C, Premji S, Slater D, Williamson T, Tough S, Patten S. Patterns of change in anxiety and depression during pregnancy predict preterm birth. Journal of Affective Disorders. October 2017. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.10.001.

Bayrampour, H, McNeil DA, Benzies K, Salmon C, Gelb K, Tough S. A qualitative inquiry on pregnant women’s preferences for mental health screening. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. September 2017. 17:339. DOI 10.1186/s12884-017-1512-4.

Dodd SX, Manhas KP, Page S, Letourneau N, Cui X, Tough SC. Governance and privacy in a provincial data repository: A cross-sectional analysis of longitudinal birth cohort parent participants’ perspectives on sharing adult vs. child research data. In Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Data Science, Technology and Applications - Volume 1: DATA, Paper #30. August 2017, ISBN: 978-989-758-255-4, 208-215. DOI: 10.5220/0006430802080215.

Hetherington, E., McDonald, S., Wu, M., & Tough, S. (2017). Risk and Protective Factors for Mental Health and Community Cohesion After the 2013 Calgary Flood. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, 1-8. doi:10.1017/dmp.2017.91.

Vinturache A, Winn A, Tough S. Recall of prenatal counselling among obese and overweight women from a Canadian population: A population based-study. Maternal and Child Health Journal. July 2017, 1-10. DOI: 10.1007/s10995-017-2324-x.

Vekved M, McNeil D, Dolan S, Siever J, Horn S, Tough S. Invested in success: A qualitative study of the experience of CenteringPregnancy group prenatal care for perinatal educators. Journal of Perinatal Education. July 2017, 26(3): 125-135. DOI: 10.1891/1058-1243.26.3.125.

Winn A, Hetherington E, Tough S. Systematic review of immigrant women’s experiences with perinatal care in North America. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing. June 2017. DOI: 10.1016/j.jogn.2017.05.002.

Saini V, MacDonald SE, McNeil DA, McDonald SW, Kellner JD. Edwards SA. Stagg, V, Tough S. Timeliness and completeness of routine childhood vaccinations in children by two years of age in Alberta, Canada. Canadian Journal of Public Health. June 2017, 108(2):  DOI: 10.17269/cjph.108.5885.

Kania-Richmond A, Hetherington E, McNeil D, Bayrampour H, Tough S, Metcalfe A. The impact of introducing Centering Pregnancy in a community health setting: A qualitative study of experiences and perspectives of health center clinical and support staff. Maternal and Child Health Journal. June 2017, 21(6): 1327-1335. DOI: 10.1007/s10995-016-2236-1

Tough SC, McDonald SW, Collisson BA, Graham SA, Kehler H, Kingston D, Benzies K. Cohort profile: the All Our Babies cohort (AOB). International Journal of Epidemiology. February 2017. DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyw363.



Bayrampour H, Tomfohr L, Tough S. Trajectories of perinatal depressive and anxiety symptoms in a community cohort. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2016.

Tomfohr-Madsen L, Bayrampour H, Tough S. Maternal history of childhood abuse and risk of asthma and allergy in 2-year-old children. Psychosomatic Medicine. December 2016, 78(9): 1031-1042. DOI: 10.1097/PSY.0000000000000419.

McDonald S, Kehler H, Bayrampour H, Fraser-Lee N, Tough S. Risk and protective factors in early child development: Results from the All Our Babies (AOB) pregnancy cohort. Research in Developmental Disabilities. November 2016, 58: 20-30. DOI: 10.1016/j.ridd.2016.08.010.

Ballantyne M, Benzies KM, McDonald S, Magill-Evans J, Tough S. Risk of developmental delay: Comparison of late preterm and full term Canadian infants at age 12 months. Early Human Development. October 2016, 101: 27-32. DOI: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2016.04.004.

Robinson AM, Benzies KM, Cairns SL, Fung T, Tough SC. Who is distressed? A comparison of psychosocial stress in pregnancy across seven ethnicities. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth (2016) 16:215 DOI 10.1186/s12884-016-1015-8.

Benediktsson I, McDonald S, Tough S. Examining the psychometric properties of three standardized screening tools in a pregnant and parenting population. Maternal and Child Health Journal. July 2016. 1-7. DOI: 10.1007/s10995-016-2128-4.

Heng YJ, Pennell CE, McDonald SW, Vinturache AE, Xu J, Lee MWF, Briollais L, Lyon AW, Slater DM, Bocking AD, de Koning L, Olson DM, Dolan SM, Tough SC, Lye SJ. Maternal whole blood gene expression at 18 and 28 weeks of gestation associated with spontaneous preterm birth in asymptomatic women. PLoS ONE. June 2016. 11(6): e0155191. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0155191.

Collisson BA, Graham SA, Preston JL, Rose MS, McDonald S, Tough S. Risk and protective factors for late talking: An epidemiologic investigation. Journal of Pediatrics. May 2016, 172:168-174.e1. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2016.02.020.

Hobbs AJ, Mannion CA, McDonald SW, Brockway M, Tough SC. The impact of caesarean section on breastfeeding initiation, duration, and difficulties in the first four months postpartum. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. April 2016, 16(90):1-9. DOI: 10.1186/s12884-016-0876-1.

Vinturache AE, Chaput KH, Tough SC. Pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and macrosomia in a Canadian birth cohort. Journal Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine. April 2016, 1-8. DOI: 10.3109/14767058.2016.1163679.

Metcalfe A, Talavlikar R, du Prey B, Tough SC. Exploring the relationship between socioeconomic factors, method of contraception and unintended pregnancy. Reproductive Health. March 2016, 13(28):1-8. DOI: 10.1186/s12978-016-0151-y.

Manhas KP, Page S, Dodd S, Letourneau N, Ambrose A, Cui X, Tough S. Parental perspectives on consent for participation in large-scale, non-biological data repositories. Life Sciences, Society and Policy. January 2016, 12(1):1. DOI: 10.1186/s40504-016-0034-6.



Vinturache A, Stephenson N, McDonald SW, Wu M, Bayrampour H, Tough S. Health-related quality of life in pregnancy and postpartum among women with assisted conception. Fertility and Sterility. July 2015, 104(1):188-95.e1. DOI: 10.1016.

Bayrampour H, McDonald S, Tough S. Risk factors of transient and persistent anxiety during pregnancy. Midwifery. June 2015, 31(6), 582–589. DOI: 10.1016/j.midw.2015.02.009.

Mannion C, Vinturache A, McDonald SW, Tough SC. The effect of back pain and urinary incontinence on daily tasks of mothers at 12 months postpartum. PLOS ONE, June 2015, 10(6). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0129615.

Vinturache A, McDonald S, Slater D, and Tough S. Perinatal outcomes of maternal overweight and obesity in term infants: a population-based cohort study in Canada. Scientific Reports. March 2015, 5(9334). DOI:10.1038/srep09334

Bayrampour H, Salmon C, Vinturache A, Tough S. Effect of depressive and anxiety symptoms during pregnancy on risk of obstetric interventions. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research. March 2015, 41(7): 1040-8. DOI:10.1111/jog.12683.

Manhas KP, Page S, Dodd S, Letourneau N, Ambrose A, Cui X, Tough S. Parent perspectives on privacy and governance for a pediatric repository of non-biological, research data. Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics. January 2015, 10(1): 88-99. DOI: 10.1177/1556264614564970.



McDonald SW, Hicks M, Rasmussen C, Nagulesapillai T, Cook J, Tough SC. Characteristics of women who consume alcohol before and after pregnancy recognition in a Canadian sample: a prospective cohort study. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. December 2014, 38(12):3008-3016. DOI: 10.1111/acer.12579.

McDonald SW, Kingston D, Bayrampour H, Dolan SM, Tough SC. Cumulative psychosocial stress, coping resources, and preterm birth. Archives of Women’s Mental Health. December 2014, 17(6):559-568. DOI: 10.1007/s00737-014-0436-5.

Vinturache A, Moledina N, McDonald S, Slater D, Tough S. Pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and delivery outcomes in a Canadian population. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth.December 2014, 14(1):422. DOI 10.1186/s12884-014-0422-y.

Bayrampour, H, McDonald, S, Fung, T, Tough, S. Reliability and validity of three shortened versions of the State Anxiety Inventory scale during the perinatal period. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology. September 2014, 35(3): 101–107. DOI: 10.3109/0167482X.2014.950218.

Raguz N, McDonald SW, Metcalfe A, O'Quinn C, Tough SC. Mental health outcomes of mothers who conceived using fertility treatment. Reproductive Health. February 2014, 11(1):19. DOI: 10.1186/1742-4755-11-19.



Leung B, McDonald S, J Kaplan B, Giesbrecht G, Tough S. Comparison of sample characteristics in two pregnancy cohorts: community-based versus population-based recruitment methods. BMC Medical Research Methodology. December 2013, 13:149. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2288-13-149.

McDonald SW, Benzies KM, Gallant JE, McNeil DA, Dolan SM, Tough SC. A comparison between late preterm and term infants on breastfeeding and maternal mental health. Maternal and Child Health Journal. October 2013, 17(8):1468-1477. DOI: 10.1007/s10995-012-1153-1.

Nagulesapillai T, McDonald S, Fenton T, Mercader H, Tough S. Breastfeeding difficulties and exclusivity among late preterm and term infants: Results from the All Our Babies Study. Canadian Journal of Public Health. July 2013, 104(4):351-356.

Mannion C, Hobbs A, MacDonald S, Tough S. Maternal perception of partner support of breastfeeding. International Breastfeeding Journal. May 2013, 8(4). DOI: 10.1186/1746-4358-8-4.

Metcalfe A, Grabowska K, Weller C, Tough S. Impact of prenatal care provider on the use of ancillary health services during pregnancy. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. March 2013, 13:62. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2393-13-62.

McNeil D, Vekved M, Dolan S, Siever J, Horn S, Tough S. A qualitative study of the experience of CenteringPregnancy group prenatal care for physicians. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. January 2013, 13(Suppl 1):S6. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2393-13-S1-S6.

Benediktsson I, McDonald S, Vekved M, McNeil D, Dolan S, Tough S. Comparing CenteringPregnancy® to standard prenatal care plus prenatal education. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. January 2013, 13(Suppl 1):S5. DOI: 1186/1471-2393-13-S1-S5.

Bat-Erdene U, Metcalfe A, McDonald S, Tough S. Validation of Canadian mothers’ recall of events in labour and delivery with electronic health records. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. January 2013, 13(Suppl 1):S3. DOI: 1186/1471-2393-13-S1-S3.

McDonald S, Lyon A, Benzies K, McNeil D, Lye S, Dolan S, Pennell C, Bocking A, Tough S. The All Our Babies pregnancy cohort: design, methods, and participant characteristics. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. January 2013, 13(Suppl 1):S2. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2393-13-S1-S2.

Tough S. Preterm Birth and Healthy Outcomes Team: the science and strategy of team-based investigation. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. January 2013, 13(Suppl 1):S1. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2393-13-S1-S1.



Malta LA, McDonald SW, Hegadoren KM, Weller CA, Tough SC. Influence of interpersonal violence on maternal anxiety, depression, stress and parenting morale in the early postpartum, accounting for social support and optimism. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. December 2012, 12:153. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2393-12-153.

Kaplan BJ, Leung BM, Giesbrecht GF, Field CJ, Bernier FP, Tough S, Cui X, Dewey D, and the APrON Study Team. Increasing the quality of life from womb to grave: the importance of pregnancy and birth cohorts. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 2013, 38(999): 85-89, DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2012-0080

McDonald SW, Wall J, Forbes K, Kingston D, Kehler H,Vekved M, Tough S. Development of a prenatal psychosocial screening tool for post-partum depression and anxiety. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology. May 2012, 26(4): 316-327. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3016.2012.01286.x.

O’Quinn C, Metcalfe A, McDonald S, Raguz N, and Tough S. Exclusive breastfeeding and assisted reproductive technologies: a Calgary cohort. Reproductive Systems & Sexual Disorders. April 2012, S-5. DOI:10.4172/2161-038X.S5-002.

McNeil DA, Vekved M, Dolan SM, Siever J, Horn S, Tough SC. Getting more than they realized they needed: a qualitative study of women’s experience of group prenatal care. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. March 2012, 12:17. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2393-12-17.



Gracie S, Metcalfe A, Dolan SM, Kehler H, Siever J, Tough S. Utilization of the 2009 H1N1 vaccine by pregnant women in a pandemic year. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada. February 2011, 33(2):127-133.



Gracie SK, Lyon AW, Kehler HL, Pennell CE, Dolan SM, McNeil DA, Siever JE, McDonald SW, Bocking AD, Lye SJ, Hegadoren KM, Olson DM, Tough SC. All Our Babies Cohort Study: Recruitment of a cohort to predict women at risk of preterm birth through the examination of gene expression profiles and the environment. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. December 2010, 10(87). DOI: 10.1186/1471-2393-10-87.